Financing the Future and Space based Solar Power

Space Solar power is the future but the financiers have other priorities. How will we get them to invest in long term space technology?

By John M Clarkson BA(Hons) MSc

Space based Solar Power is closer than we currently think. The time line is shortening as payload costs tumble with the development of privately owned rocket companies. The Chinese have set up a city to develop Space based Solar Power in order to solve their coal shortage, especially important after the Philippines decided no longer to sell them coal. Who will win the race? The West or the East? Finances are at the heart of this problem as much as cheaper rocket payload costs.

Energy from Outer Space – A Course about Space Solar Power – available now on Udemy at a reduced price

I’ve created a course on the subject of SSP which I hope people will take and enjoy. It’s available at by clicking here: SPACE SOLAR POWER COURSE

We’ve looked already at Space based solar Power in my Blogs here on the LUF, however, by writing a course on it, and working on my film (still in production) called ‘Valery Danko Discovers Energy from Space’ we inadvertently stumbled across another interesting subject: financing.

It’s not covered much in our course, though we do look at some interesting versions of it. However, what we found was even more interesting. It’s scandalous and goes to the very heart of the future of planet earth.

The Domesticated Human Economy

The world you see is not as we are told it is. We are told that we should run businesses and pay our tax. That the tax is collected and used by the representative (NB.) governments ‘we the people’ elect. This applies to any nation that actually has liberal-democracy in a sense of free and fair elections. That the system is that government shouldn’t interfere with the economy too much. That all will be well as long as we allow the ‘hidden hand’ to take action.

We are also made aware of, but never get any sense that anyone ever listened to him, Adam Smith, who in 1776 criticised ‘rent economies’. That is where unproductive assets that don’t employ people or generate products that help the masses, but simply suck money from them become a dominant means to make wealth. This would include land owned by the Duke of Westminster (by right of birth or inheritance) or buildings bought by the Reuben brothers to rent to the H M Inland Revenue (the tax collecting authority in the United Kingdom).

These warnings are ignored because our current economy rewards and supports asset owners, rent economies, and dissuades invention and investment in manufacturing. Space X, Virgin Space and Blue Origin are exceptions not the rule. Most banks merely shunt money around in a circle, printing money automatically as they loan it to businesses and people. Many people are buying assets such as homes. They do invest in companies, but not nearly enough to stimulate economic growth. Instead they are asset based rent economy supporters and that means land and property is valued above creating space technology companies every time!

When economies fail, those who are unable to pay back are left homeless, or lose their business properties, and soon the banks own all the assets. This is exactly what we ought not to be allowing, because it is a ‘rent economy’.

The banks always win even if they go bust. In 2008/9 RBS was bought out by 50% or more by the UK government using a 19th century law. Some banks seem to have gone out of their way to suck up defenceless asset owners businesses, those not rich enough to fight back. This involved forgery of documents, fraud and re-writing telephone transcript records!

What has this all to do with the Living Universe Foundation? It’s vital to understand the kind of economic system we live in order to know if anything will ever happen over the development of space technology.

What is the solution to a mature rent economy? Well that’s called Georgism, and is the idea that all taxes should be replaced by a land tax. With some extra rules such as rent caps and mortgage caps, and using the single land tax to pay everyone a Universal Basic Income, we can build a better future. With the growth of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and robots Elon Musk even said that this will be a necessity. Well, the only way to fund it will be via Georgism. The richest people will resist this as it hits them the hardest, especially the entrenched elites e.g. Prince Charles.

In bringing such a system into place one would immediately stop the millions that never flow into the tax system because they are sent abroad to tax havens. This tax which is currently lost is vital to the future. We don’t know exact numbers but it could be billions of pounds sterling per year (we’ll never know) to provide things like free health care for all (as in the UK) without privatisation of healthcare (which sadly has been introduced into the UK from the USA at huge costs – namely 150,000 dead from poor covid management – the blame can be firmly placed at Jeremy Hunt MP and his Conservative Party’s door). The sad fact is the major thing you’ll pay in your life is tax, because the asset owning classes have made sure they never will. Why is that?

The Wild Banker Warlord Economy

Why won’t we ‘ever know?’ And why will the asset class holding elite make sure you’ll always pay your taxes and they never will? Surely everything is recorded? Incorrect. The City of London is a Secrecy Jurisdiction. This means nothing can be reported. Occasionally though the secrecy is lost e.g. Pandora Papers, the Panama Papers etc. This reveals a spiders web of disgusting malevolence by the elites – who by the way hardly ever pay tax – and the intrigue that occurs in the City of London.

The City of London is the hub of the problem, which is also behind the destruction of our planet, using its many former tax havens to disguise flows of money around the world merely to invest in illegal land clearances, deforestation, child slave labour mining (e.g. cobalt, lithium etc used to make batteries) and oil, gas and coal extraction. There are crime syndicates and mafia involved, along with drug cartels spanning the world! There’s a whole host of Eastern European and poorer nations prostitution and vice rackets attached. Every nasty thing you can think of from arms sales to paedophiles (remember Jeffry Epstein) is involved in this scurrilous tale of immorality, condoned by the law makers in the UK for centuries!

In my film: ‘The World Stripped Bare’ we’ll take an saucy and entertaining look at this phenomena.

The World Stripped Bare Trailer (2021)

The World Stripped Bare Trailer (2021) Copyright All Rights Reserved Perimetr Films

How should we classify what is legal in the financial world and how this affects the growth of humans into space? These are fundamental questions to explore. Here I’ll provide a few ideas.

Laws do not make things moral or right. Everyone has heard the ‘law is an ass’. The US broke away from Britain’s laws not because of the Tea tax that involved the East India Company in Boston Harbour. Actually the reason was far better than that! It was because the founding fathers wanted an empire. The Act of Proclamation 1762 prohibited expansion west to prevent another war with France or further wars with Spain, and to some extent a feeling that the native tribes would be too difficult to deal with! The British government were simply not prepared to risk lives and resources in western expansion having fought a nasty war with France to protect its citizens in the 13 colonies of America. That’s why they needed a tax contribution, which was by the way, very small compared with the taxes that the Founding Fathers applied to pay for the cruel war against the British (where unlike in the film Patriot starring Mel Gibson most of the major atrocities were carried out by the US forces e.g. the long march into Canada where women and children died in the snow. This led to the formation of Canada and an anti- US sentiment by Canadians which came to a head in the War of 1812, when the US tried to invade Canada and got a bloody nose followed by 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue being burned down by British Admirals. The US President had to leave in a hurry, and the British commanders ate the President’s dinner and set the slaves free – the British having already outlawed slavery to some extent.)

In our film we examine how tradition and laws or lack of them have allowed the City of London – the Square Mile – to become a centre of a vast financial empire that is largely behind much of the environmental problems we are suffering now. This leads me onto the fact that is even more concerning.

Will the Warlord’s invest in SSP?

Will the City of London and the banks in the USA they are connected to have what it takes to invest in a long-term space technologies that appear to have no value right now? That’s where most people will say that is where government must step in. However, each time a disaster happens we know that governments essentially lose the ability to keep borrowing money from the future.

One chink of light is that bankers know all about commodities. They make good business from them. Think about the recent pandemic and the inflation it has caused as governments pumped money in and closed down oil, gas and coal production, only to find out that commodity traders have obtained (been paid by the production companies) to hold these vital energy stocks. Now they are required they release them to make a profit on the fact they rented out storage facilities and ships to hold them over the pandemic period. How much better would it be to have Space based Solar Power on tap than rely on dodgy commodity traders? It’s looking like a feasible investment with a 4:1 EROIE.

There is however, a flaw in this argument. Increasingly commodity traders are diversifying into buying up land, mainly rainforests to obtain Rare Earth Elements. These REEs are not rare, but spread out. Vast amounts of land have to be accessed. That means major deforestation in places rich in them e.g. D R Congo. Here they get cheap slave labour. Why then invest in somewhere expensive to make energy, when one can wreck the planet Earth with lithium and cobalt pollution to make a Renewable Electric Energy Economy? (see my course on the Future of Energy.) What will dissuade them when they are short-term greedy thinkers who want their money back as soon as possible?

[On a side note it is interesting to know that the assassination of JFK may have been connected to the death of the UN ambassador and his role in the Katanga War. This was a place south of the DR Congo rich in minerals, particularly REEs and the British financial sector and Belgian government were highly placed to take advantage of them if they could make sure that their men in power won that war. It appears that this and the fact that JFK tried to tax the Eurodollar trade (nothing to do with modern Euro currency) in July 1963 may have caused the CIA to consider eliminating him purely for self-interested reasons due to their connections to the ruling elites in London and New York. By November JFK had been shot dead allegedly by a lone gunman, who had connections to the CIA. It was well-known that the CIA had an agenda the opposed JFK but was supported by Johnson. This is not a conspiracy theory but is founded in facts established after the Warren Commission.]

Tentative Conclusion

If commodity traders and banks are into asset buying then where is the money to invest in the space industry? Can they magic it out of thin air as prices rises, taxes reduce, the wealthy send their money offshore to invest in land, property, assets and commodities, and less into home grown production industry or design? What happens when the AI revolution hits? Meanwhile the Chinese giant is now awake and running a capitalist system that forces them to hold onto power using a forever growth model? Will the West fall behind? If the West does fall behind what will happen next? Or will the City of London with its 320 to 800 year history, and US banking system with its 246 year history, be able to pluck victory from the edge of climate change chaos and energy crisis disaster? We can however hope that visionaries will emerge. Hopefully we here at the LUF can be those visionaries.


The Future of Energy – udemy Course

Energy from Outer Space – udemy Course

The old world was just weird

Everything was based on debt.  The break from the Gold Standard in 1972 was done because the United States no longer had the reserves necessary to support the global demand for US Dollars.  The entire decade was a bank run as the US and the world adjusted to the change in monetary system, one we had not seen since the debasement of the Roman Empires currency two thousand years before.  The foundation of everything was a promise that no matter how crazy things got, the Federal Government would always pay on the treasury bonds, with interest.  For decades, we hunted for investments that would give us a return on our capital that was higher than the constant increase in prices.  Some people threw their value into the Treasury Bonds, not recognizing that they were the foundation of the decay, not the secure foundation of a portfolio as they had been promoted and advertised for hundreds of years.  Other nations dispensed with the circus of raising a debt ceiling, but the politicians used the clowns to keep the people both entertained and at each other’s throats every few years.

Bitcoin and Ethereum changed everything.  No one ever discovered who Satoshi Nakamoto was, and that’s probably a good thing.  Some would have worshiped the Author as a God, while others would have done anything to destroy whoever or whatever had dispelled the illusion that had caused so much disruption during the early to mid 21st century.  But by the year 2030 it was obvious that nothing would or could go back to the way it had been.

Nations dissolved, some violently and some peacefully.  Once the supply chain started using IPFS and tokens to manage data storage and value transfer, the transparency of who was leaching off the transaction costs made it easy to trace the source of products, services and true costs.  The companies that embraced this transparency and the public outcry that resulted became global players with customer and citizen loyalty that rivalled or even exceeded the team spirit of international sports.

There are two main components to the new monetary asset landscape.  The first is of course Bitcoin itself, representing the sum total of all monetary and financial value of the entire Sol system.  Other digital assets exist and have their loyal users, but they are all priced and freely exchanged with Bitcoin so they are simply side chains of little consequence to most people.  The second component is Ethereum, which maintained the Proof of Stake protocol after the transition to 3.0 but is now the system wide transaction currency upon which 90% of all commerce takes place.  It took until after 2025 for Vitalik and the other developers to recognize the best functional capital design and how it relates to population, but when they finally launched into the global transformational phase, the world was ready and waiting.  Going from a few hundred million coins to 8 billion over a few years caused the perceived price to fall temporarily, but the result of bringing every human on the planet into the same monetary and transaction system was transformative in ways nobody could have predicted.

Now there is no division between the investor class and anyone else, because everyone can take advantage of the same opportunities.  Of course there is inequality, but there is also a much better understanding of how the system operates and how to build our financial foundation.  Those who felt the transition the most were the middle men, the gate keepers, the high priests of finance who were constantly trying to advertise their expertise in reading charts, graphs and technical details that kept people away.  Some of the fancy tools they used are still around and people have fun in the metaverse building more detailed models and 4D graphics renderings of this or that period of history.  The data is out there if you want to spend time on it.  Have fun.

When I said everyone, I meant it.  There are almost 10 billion people on or around Earth now.  And each and every one of us is known, respected and provided for by the systems we have put into place.  You can have as much or as little privacy as you want, we kept the heart and soul of the old 4th amendment to the original US Constitution.  Everyone is secure in their effects and affairs, and the only way to break through the shields that you choose to have in place is via a warrant issued by a registered governance institution.  Laws still exist, and they are enforced by market supported agencies in full public transparency.  The media continues to keep watch and they tell our stories, but these days when something is revealed as a problem action commences immediately to try and solve that problem. No more waiting for months or years.  No more endless debates that divide and conquer while those who stand to gain from the chaos count the gains.  Data is collected from live feeds and historical records instantly, tokens are staked as votes on the table of justice and decisions are made to repair what was broken and prevent future harm.  The Native tribe mantra of looking back seven generations and looking forward another seven generations is the core of our justice system.  All in public view and review.

We all have our favorite sectors, industries, companies and geographical divisions, and now we can capitalize on them, going from broad sectors or regions down to the most narrowly focused projects.  Want to invest in Africa or South America as they continue their meteoric rise?  There are dozens of tokens that track those entire regions.  Is there a specific solar project at a specific latitude and longitude that is supporting a family member back home?  You can buy the token of that solar farm and capture a fraction of the mining rewards collected by those panels, all while helping to provide a constant income stream for your family though the shared staking service.  And your family back home can stake some fraction of their capital into any project on the planet or around it.

We no longer need brokers.  Defi won, hands down.  The transparency that the old regulators demanded was always there, built into the systems from the very beginning.  What was missing was not people looking over our shoulders, but people looking over THEIRS.  And not just some people, but all of the people.  Full public transparency shook the trees and the earthquake caused a great deal of loss.  Dynasties fell, and new ones rose in their place.  The billionaires who were actually doing the right thing we’re rewarded, and the others disappeared.  The bill in the US Congress to make this happen was controversial, but in the end inevitable.  Nobody wanted to be seen on the side of secrets when it was those secrets that were burning the world around them.

The Wall Street Historical Museum still maintains the facade of the buildings, and there are even some people who stage reenactments of the biggest trading days over the past few centuries.  Black Friday in 1929 is a popular one.  Gold Thursday players often seem like they are starting in one of the ancient Greek tragedies when they recount the fall of the value of the metals commodity market on the day that the first kg of Gold was mined on an asteroid.  Visiting these historical places today reminds me of visiting Salem, Massachusetts and visiting the museum of Witchcraft.  Old spooks designed to scare children and keep them in line.

There were people on both sides of the old left and right divisions who wasted years and tons of capital trying to convince us that the only way for us to survive the coming apocalypse was to follow the sound of their pipes and ignore all others.  Those who allowed themselves to be swept along in that tide eventually drowned, thankfully not taking the rest of us with them.  And this kind of noise came from all sides, until they were finally silenced by the overwhelming evidence against their poorly thought out positions.  Free market was always a lie, and socialism lost the battle that all -isms eventually succumb to, losing the core of their meanings in conflicting and contradictory definitions that are nowhere close to reality.  There are parts of the core messages from each side that retain meaning, but using the two sides as weapons against our fellow man will hopefully never be seen again.  It said a lot about the future of our civilization when both sides decided to just give up the advertising bonanza that was costing them so much and join the rest of us who had given up on them decades earlier.

Because the truth is that we don’t live in a burned out post destruction wasteland.  We live in paradise, at least when compared to the old days of the industrial revolution.  Climate change is on the retreat as CO2 levels come back down.  Biodiversity will take centuries to recover, but we now know enough about what we have and we are all dedicated to preserving it.  The Great Recycling initiative succeeded when the United Nations signed off on the tokenization strategy.  Planting trees and cleaning beaches were no longer just moves of desperation or attempts by small groups of inadequately funded but dedicated believers, they are a well supported enterprises employing millions of people all over the globe.  Not only in urban areas where people lived where they could see the trash all around them, but under the grass of all of the landfills, inside and at the bottom of lakes and streams, under the surface of the ocean, in the air above us.  We thought that this would be AI cleaning up after us, but why depend on an AI system when there are billions of people looking for a way to contribute, to earn a living and to save and stake capital for their families and their future while improving and repairing the world they live in today.

The metaverse was not a retreat from the world, it was a training ground.  If people could and did spend thousands of dollars to joy ride a rover on the surface of the Moon, why not build a rover that could be remotely piloted to pick up trash along a city street, with tokenized compensation based on how much you and your rover could collect.  Transparency guaranteed so nobody could claim your share of the work.  Bird watchers could follow their favorite song birds via drones that were tiny and silent, collecting migration data that scientists paid well for.  Land management was no longer limited to ranchers and cowboys, they could now employ dozens of helpers who used data collected from any number of sources to watch every member of the flock and keep them safe, all from the comfort of home unless you really wanted to be in a saddle.

The landfills became prime mining areas for the basics of glass, metals, and organics.  Everything was collected, broken down and then sold off as components to industrial players who made good use of the material.  Why spend the money to mine raw which cost so much thanks to global discouragement regulations when there was a well equipped army of diggers operating independently or in teams to reuse what humanity had spent the last 300 years tossing into waste streams?

Even in space people are cooperating globally to prevent the Kessler syndrome by hunting down and collecting the nuts and bolts that had been lost in orbit for a hundred years.  The advantage here was that the major players pay a premium to hunters who work tirelessly to clear their orbital paths.

These things had always been on the drawing board but the problem was that nobody could figure out a way to “pay for them” in the ancient tax and spend government financed fiat nightmare.  It’s almost like people did not understand what capital was in the first place, let alone how to use it, accumulate it or save it effectively.  With tokenization, all of that changed.  Suddenly things like the Plastic Bank, which was a proof of concept, showed that everyone across the globe could understand that cleaning their world could be done and that the effort involved had value that could be and would be rewarded.  At first it was municipal governments working alongside private charities that launched the concept to try and deal with the massive amounts of recycling and waste generated by the Amazon driven delivery economy.  Got a box of a certain size in good condition?  There is a market for that.  Have things that you need to get rid of?  Whatever it is, there is a market for it.  And when everything is on an open blockchain, the risk of fraud goes away almost entirely.  Confirm a pickup with a scan of a pre-generated code, and everything from the transfer of value to the data management of the supply chain takes place behind the scenes automatically. 

It might still take a few days to get something from one part of a continent to another, but just like the IPFS system itself, content based supply chains can identify the closest source for what you need and can get it to you as quickly as a pickup can happen.  It doesn’t matter in the cloud who you are or who you are buying from, it’s all just cloud layers.  Sure the big players like Amazon still get a lot of that business, but when the layer 2 apps came out and people could indicate that they wanted to avoid this or that source for products and distribution and it no longer delayed their purchases, these big companies got on board with the demands for reform really fast.  The alternative was to allow those layer 2 apps to eat their market share and make them not just invisible but utterly destroyed.

The challenge of trust has been with us for thousands of years, and with tokenization it became an understandable and trackable resource.  China, before it collapsed, tried implementing a social score system that provided positive rewards for good behavior and negative rewards for bad behavior.  But their citizens didn’t agree to the subjective identification of good and bad, and the black market explosion caused the entire system to self destruct much like what had happened on the Soviet Union a half century earlier.  When trust is recognized as a commodity resource in the metaverse and people no longer have trust in government institutions, it is the institutions that collapse.  The Blockchains had made it ever more costly to maintain the firewall anyway, so that was erased when Web 3.0 started to show such incredible returns on a global investment scale.

Putting a value on carbon in a global market was a dream for some and a nightmare for others.  So many systems designed in the 20th century were dedicated to making sure that one company, one country or even one person gained while the others lost.  We wasted so much time and it cost us all so much.  The US Dollar seemed like a good idea at the time, but all it took was the launch of the OIL cryptocommodity for everything to collapse.  Being able to buy and sell oil using the token meant that you no longer needed permission from the banks.   The other major commodities followed with their own tokens, and then services followed.  Gas prices became less and less meaningful as the EV market replaced ICE vehicles, and with the decentralized and global market for electricity generation energy prices stabilized and became universal.  And the banks no longer mattered.  But the real change came when the CARB token was launched with the goal of not just reducing the amount of carbon we put into the atmosphere but to literally pull it out of both the air and the oceans.

Value itself is a civilization based resource, so as soon as the markets told the UN which way the wind was going to blow them, they decided to finance the creation of the token design that would save us.  Nations pledged capital into the pool.  The staking rewards from that pool went back to the countries that had invested into the token, along with a portion going to buy the reserve asset.  Some of these rewards were used to finance the development and distribution of the equipment that people needed to clean things up, and the more we saw success in the efforts of these early adopters, the more money was staked, the more the reserve asset was purchased and the more equipment could be financed.  People thought that the bubble of the carbon price would collapse, but because of the fixed supply of the reserve asset, such a collapse turned out to be pushed further and further ahead of us on the timeline.  We still hear chicken little every once in a while, but the data doesn’t show that will happen.  A well designed system of value management can do this easily.  We just had to trust the market of ideas to come up with a solution.  Imagine trusting people again.  It’s amazing.

Link Roundup

Intersection of nuclear and H2 –

Solar Desalinization –

Nanotechnology –[0]=AT18DVc29OwMote4ySVPQ2GZFBnakX01Rr845z-FgXS9-vgwN-AGWAtbL62zqIP6ITN6wNtfl3Qc1UKKLH7Y-TPfe_LDejZcyZnx5icymYgQCaQoLJJPsI7F01cUObBoF4RxN3tGtesLYSUyfsaSVEq5M5OrW5bt9N7un5mE5jJ3_ziO0HQv3YlVISGc_hLELT551VeQdAUyHn7FzM3X

Buy SolarEdge Technologies (SEDG) up to $315.00

It has been several months since I last found a renewable company I’d be interested in investing in. Recently SEDG, burst above its 200 day moving average, indicating a strong uptrend. At the same time, the RSI indicates room to run. I’m recommending SEDG up to $315.00.

SEDG manufactures and distributes the inverters (and other equipment/services) that convert DC electric current from Photovoltaic cells into AC current, ready for the grid. This segment is less subject to the high volume, low margin environment of the actual PV cells and is less of an R&D arms race. It is also much less capital intensive. Thus, SEDG is sporting attractive margins on its products.

The company is showing good growth on both the top and bottom lines. What I really like is they produce a lot of Free Cash Flow as a percentage of revenue. This indicates a lucrative product but also conservative accounting practices. The recent chart with 50 and 200 day moving averages as well as RSI is below.

Devour your prey raptors!

The Fundamental Resources of Civilization

Civilization is a human construct, taking vast amounts of energy and time from millions, even billions of people around the world.  Civilization would not exist without those people, so there must be specific things that humans bring to the table of the universe in order to transform a raw landscape with physical objects, energy and natural laws into something that can be called a “civilization”.  This essay is an attempt to explore those things that only humans in our experience have ever brought into this universe in abundance.

There are four major resources that are created of, by and for the human mind, body and soul.  By soul I do not mean spirit, which would get into religious context that are beyond the scope in many ways but integral in one specific way.  Religions are passed from person to person and down from generation to generation in the form of stories, ideas, concepts.  Whatever the language, whatever the medium, it is the story that is told that we want to focus on here.  It’s the information, the data.  It can be measured, either in the number of words in a book, the number of pages in a manuscript, the number of equations in a proof, the number of rows in a database.  Data can be stored, it can be shared, recorded, the content can be reviewed, hashed, etc.  Whatever language is being used, it can tell the same story in different ways, from different perspectives, but it all comes down to what is being relayed.  In all of its forms, data is the soul of civilization, telling its story to its members and keeping that story alive as that civilization grows and changes over time.

The second primary resource of a civilization is productive capacity.  This is the ability to take an idea and turn it into an object or to use it to do useful work, taking the materials, energy and natural laws of the universe and turning it into something usable by humans for human needs and wants is truly magical.  Productive capacity is that spark of genius that takes a series of numbers and transforms it into a visual chart, or taking a natural law like heat and pressure and turning a gear shaft with fire and steam, that capacity can be measured.  It’s the efficiency of an engine, the value of an invention, the yield of a farm or the assembly quota of a manufacturing plant.  It is the ability to do work.  Not the value represented by the speed of an engine or the price of a crop or manufactured good, but the sheer transformation of raw materials into finished product, or the generation of ideas in the pure service economy.

Value is a third primary resource of civilization, and I’m talking about the core functions of money itself, those being a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a store of value.  Money can come on many different forms, and can be measured in many different ways, but all of these are aspects and facets of those core concepts.  Whether we are talking about fiat currency within a jurisdiction or country, or commodity money representing a specific amount of a material, our economic system depends on our willingness to accept that things have a certain value and that those things can be exchanged for goods and services.  Just like different languages can tell the same story in different ways, different currencies can hold and represent the same value in different ways.  Whether you are talking about the highest valuable national currency in the world with the New Zealand Dollar or one of the least valuable currency (not including the hyperinflated ones) like the Iranian Rial, we do accept that they each have a certain value that can be used to purchase goods and services around the world.

The final primary resource of civilization that only exists between creatures with a certain sized neural network within the brain is trust.  When one gives their word that they will do something and they follow through, they build that trust, and when someone breaks their word either through intent or forgetfulness, it degrades that trust.  We can even bypass some monetary value in a direct trading economy when we mutually agree that painting a picture is worth a certain number of dinners or a ring is worth a lifetime of memories.  Sure, the painting might be valued a certain amount if you look at it exclusively as canvass, ink and time, but our ability to strike a bargain and come to an agreement can change the value at will.

What got me thinking about all of this in the first place was the rise of Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies.  There will only ever be 21 million Bitcoin in the network once all of the coins are mined.  But each Bitcoin can be easily subdivided into 100 million decimal components, called Satoshis.  That final mining operation to bring all 21 million Bitcoins into circulation is projected to happen in 2078, and the expected population from the United Nations for that year is 10,637,573,903.  I know that this is just math, but if we take 21 million, multiply by 100 million, and then divide by that population figure, we get an equal distribution of 197,413.43 Satoshis per person in 2078.  That’s with all things being perfectly equal.

Bitcoin is a store of value, a unit of account and a medium of exchange.  The act of the exchange and the creation of the blocks in the blockchain is an act of productive capacity, turning raw data into a unit of work, moving money from this wallet to that wallet, and keeping it all on a shared and trusted ledger.  But it’s just one of a thousand different blockchains out there, each of which has a value, both in terms of market capitalization and individual unit worth in the open market.

Let’s get back to the analogy.  A resource in the real world can be abundant or scarce.  There are oceans of water on Earth, and there are also vast deserts.  Water is only one resource though.  The Sahara desert is composed of sand and dust that is carried across the Atlantic Ocean by the wind and drops in rain drops onto the Amazon Rainforest, providing a great deal of the nutrients and materials over time that the Rainforest needs to thrive.  Scientific investigations into what the global effects would be if efforts were put into turning the Sahara green again with plant life and rich forests showed that it would reduce this transfer of materials to South America and that the Amazon might end up losing much of the nutrient rich soil, becoming a less dense forest, even a savannah or desert given enough time.

Now think about the resources of civilization in those terms.  There are places in the world where data is very scarce, people don’t have access to education or any information, they are limited only to what stories are passed from generation to generation and the knowledge that they need to survive.  And there are great libraries that hold vast numbers of books, information filling every corner in quantities that no individual human could ever consume in a single lifetime.  There are places in the world where thousands, even millions, of people live with a revenue of less than a dollar per day, and then we have places where thousands of dollars are spent by a single person for a hotel stay for a single night, or millions of dollars pass from hand to hand in heartbeats or even shorter timelines within commodity trading markets.  There are fields of war where thousands of years have passed since anyone trusted anyone else, and other places where the struggle to survive means that all productive energy is spent just moving water from a river to a cache basin to do a single load of laundry for a single family.

What makes a civilization a “success”, and how can that be measured?  The reality is that it is the equality or inequality, the equity or the lack of equity in any or all of the resources of civilization that can be used to quantifiably measure the success of that civilization.  We don’t need each and every person in the population to have exactly 197,413.43 Satoshis in 2078, but we also don’t want to see a world where a small number of people control wallets holding 20.9 Million Bitcoin while the rest of the world fights over just 10,000,000 Satoshis.  Even given that as just part of the total economic picture, it still reflects the metaphor of Deserts, Oceans and Rainforests, with different resources available in different quantities in different places, and all resources needing to be put together deliberately for civilizations to thrive.

The physical resources we have available on Earth are limited, and they do create limits to what we are capable of doing on this planet.  But the Solar System is more than just Planet Earth, it includes all of the other planets, the asteroids, the comets and even the Sun itself.  And this system is only one of billions of star systems within one among billions of Galaxies in the Cosmos.  What we must do is use the resources of civilization, which are information and data, productive capacity, money/value and our willingness to trust ourselves and our fellow man to reach beyond just the Earth towards the stars.  And we must do so with equity and equality at the center of the story of humanity.

NewMars topic SPS in LEO

The are discussing multiple topics as usual. One recent addition is:

This past week a new topic has come into view.  The US Defense Department reported a successful test of a small solar panel riding in the X37b experimental space platform.  The background for this experiment was reported to be the Pentagon interest in providing power from space to remote military outposts, to reduce risks due to transport of petroleum in disputed territory.

The implications of this idea for civilian power service are under vigorous discussion.  There is a class of satellite orbits which ride the dawn/dusk border around the Earth.  These are a category of polar orbit that precesses at just the right rate to remain constantly in view of the Sun.  Delivery of power from one of these satellites is available for about 30 minutes at least once a day for every location on Earth.

In addition, it appears that service may be possible twice a day, because every location on Earth is exposed to dawn once a day, and dusk 12 hours later.  In addition, more than one satellite can ride in this orbit.  For example, a satellite every degree of latitude is possible. And finally, there is no reason why a particular satellite in LEO is limited to serving just one location.  There may be a practical limit, but service to 100 stations seems like a reasonable number to consider.

Thus, if all the possibilities are covered, we would have:

1)    3 30 minute charge opportunities per orbit (assuming 90 minute orbit)
2)    360 satellites so 1080 charge opportunities (assuming 1 customer per satellite)
3)    1080 * 100 or 10,800 charge opportunities assuming 100 customers per satellite

Each station should have enough energy storage capacity to hold a charge of 30 minutes for distribution over 24 hours.


Why Colonise Space?

Why colonise space? What will it lead to? Here I take you on a journey to Easter Island to understand why we need to colonise space. However I also note the dangers of colonising space, especially in a future where AI is dominant.

What will it lead to?

There are few places in the world quite like Easter Island or as it is known to the Polynesians, Rapa Nui. It is arguably the remotest place on Earth. It could be said that one is closer to cities when you are in the International Space Station (ISS) than when you are on Easter Island. It is famous for only one thing: the moai. These are the colossal stone statues of human faces that seem to be impossible to construct given the lack of timber on the island. However, did they do it?

Valery Danko, the Managing Director of Perimetr Films travelled to Easter Island in 2019. Initially we made a history film. However, at the same time evidence was collected about climate change, plastic pollution and the clear reliance on diesel oil based energy (though some solar was allowed, it was thought to ruin the character of the island). Clearly space based solar would be very suitable on Easter Island.

What is interesting about Easter Island is that like humans on planet earth as a whole, the people that originally inhabited it around 800 AD, were extremely successful economically. However, they devastated their environment. Thus, they lost the ability, due to their long time on this remote island, to flee from it. One could say it was a lack of knowledge! I suspect it was also a lack of palm trees to build their ships. Climate change may have had an impact on them also, as the decline seems to correspond with the Little Ice Age. Equally rat populations may have also prevented them from managing the tree harvest properly. Whatever the case, the bad situation was multi-causal and eventually the civilisation that had built the moai declined and was eventually enslaved by Europeans. (The film above we made is fascinating and I highly recommend it!)

Easter Island is a good example of Spaceship Earth. We should never forget we are essentially a spaceship. We float through space at an enormous speed, which we don’t even notice.

We desperately need to return to the moon and colonise it. Then we need to venture towards Mercury and disassemble it for materials. We need to use robots that can survive the harshness of space. They need to be artificially intelligent, able to reproduce themselves, survive the rigours of space and adapt to new and even more hostile conditions. They must be almost as good as humans at adaptation to conditions on Earth.

Once we have succeeded in this we can venture into the asteroid belt and to the moons of many planets that offer us a bountiful treasure of materials we can utilise for the betterment of human kind.

If we stay on planet Earth, and only go to the Moon or Mars for tourism, we’ll fail to survive as long as we can.

We need right now to build the best space defence systems available – which need to be solar powered. (See my previous blogs.) We need to clean up the debris orbiting our planet which we have turned into a tip.

Space debris 1957 to 2015

Taking mercury apart by using self-replicating robots will not be too difficult. However, another swarm of robots will need to build huge space factories that can convert this material into thin solar panels, space vehicles, and bring back rare elements that we lack on Earth and so on.

Also taking mercury apart gives us the materials to try to create a Dyson Sphere. We can then muster huge amounts solar energy, allowing our ships to venture beyond the solar system, deep into space.

How to Create a Dyson Sphere

Human problems are not generally insurmountable. Instead I believe most human problems are linked to 3 things:

Firstly we tend to over-populate and live in cluttered hostile environments.

Anything that produces more than it’s own number is going to grow exponentially. When you add that to a limited space you have a problem.

Maths is quite useful here. If you want to know how long it takes anything to grow over a time period you can use this trick:

Let’s say that the global population grows at 2% per year. If that is true then that means it doubles every 35 years. On a grand scale that’s not long – only half a human lifetime (of 70 years of age). That means they’ll need twice as much as what we have by the year 2090. Twice the food, twice the shelter, twice the water, twice the number of sewerage plants and twice the amount of energy.

The way to know the doubling time of any fixed growth rate is to divide it into 70 e.g. 70 divided by 2 = 35 years. If the growth rate is 7% per year then 70 divided by 7 = 10 years. (The growth rate does not have to be per year, it can be any time period as long as you have a percentage growth rate.)

A 100% growth rate per year would by 70 divided by 100 = 0.7 of a year.

Populations go completely crazy if confined to a cluttered and overcrowded environment. For example, mice placed in an experimental habitat, started off quite relaxed. However, with a few generations they were crazily competing over resources such as living space (lebensraum – where have I read that before?)

Mental health is a big priority now especially amongst the younger members of the British royal family. More and more people are seeing psychiatrists or therapists for help. The 2020 lockdowns due to covid-19 have not helped. However, fear of lockdown or loss of work due to lockdown is a real and present threat. People are losing their jobs to the policies that the governments are using to deal with it.

Population growth in cluttered spaces is thus a problem for the well-being of humanity over the longer term. It encourages future pandemics. We must therefore tackle with all urgency population growth and curtail urban growth in favour of village growth.

Secondly, we are wasting much of our talent because the economy works on the principle of satiating a need, a want, a desire, or a demand. These are what drive the global economy. Anything that cannot produce something that people want to buy is without an income and thus can quickly end up being overwhelmed by poverty. We are one pay check away from poverty in many cases. In the case of businessmen, or very rich people, who have lots of reserves, the inevitable can be delayed, but never put off entirely. Eventually one must find an income, even if it is only to pay the bills!

Such a system is based on using materials and destroying habitats largely unseen by us. The Planet of the Dead will be the epitaph of humankind if this economic system, however useful or better it is than other forms of production, is allowed to continue unchecked by effective enforcement of global environmental laws

Going into space though would allow humans to change their economic system to one of machine based Artificial Intelligence economics. With inexhaustible supplies of energy and materials humans would no longer need to work in factories, mine or go around chopping down forests. Instead they could work for the betterment of their villages, travel to places that they had never seen, enjoy their life rather than having to do some awful work that they hate, live, love and be merry, for life is short: who after all wishes to sit at a computer all day or work as a filing clerk? Who wants to protect the Prime Minister or the President from harm, when an Artificial Intelligence government could run the world efficiently? Who needs a democracy when artificial intelligence rules the world?

Thirdly, our current obsession with race, creed, religion, beliefs, ideologies, power and wealth, could be obliterated by placing artificial intelligence self-replicating machines in charge of politics or economics and do away with nation states altogether. In such a magnificent future Vladimir Putin would be viewed by the AI teachers of young humans as an example of a human dinosaur – that is a power mad, crazy who deserved to be terminated as soon as possible along with his supporters and oligarchs.

The solution though does not bode well. As artificial intelligence develops, it would eventually become superior to us. Once it can self-replicate without help from humans, and even change its own programming safety features, humans themselves would be seen as potential threat. Logic would dictate that such a system should eliminate its creator for fear of destruction. It follows the natural progress of human history: white Europeans with superior technological development conquered inferior developed regions and either enslaved them or carried out genocide in order to obtain their resources. The AI leaders would have no reason to kill us other than a fear of our unreliable, illogical behaviour. We are perhaps the most violent creature on planet earth given our firepower. Thus AI leaders would quickly assess us as a threat to their existence, and with cold logical terminate all of us.

Luckily AI of the type I am imagining is probably 1000 years away if not more. If well-controlled AI government could solve the Easter Island scenario and lead mankind to a better, happier future. The idea of Skynet, in the Terminator films, is a military version of what I imagine for government of planet earth and space. Who needs Joe Biden if you’ve got SkyNet to run things?


The World Stripped Bare

by John Clarkson BA(Hons) MSc film producer and Sustainable Development Scientist and Writer

At Perimetr Films we’re going to make a film about how the financial world is killing our planet and preventing humanity from reaching our potential. That potential is essentially reaching the stars and surviving an apocalypse.

Nicholas Shaxson wrote an amazing book (Treasure Islands: the men who stole the world) and there was even a documentary about the subject of trust funds. It describes the financial spiders web of intrigue and corruption that means tax payers are paying huge sums, whilst the mega-wealthy elites go untaxed.

At the same time though governments are investing tax in military and anti-climate change technology that serves no purpose other than short term financial gain. In many ways we all ought to not pay tax, or use banks, because these very institutions are behind slowly destroying rain-forests, sterilising land using pesticides and artificial fertilisers, producing food that is less nutritious and in some cases heavily polluted by chemicals that are known carcinogens to humans. One cannot blame the rich from hiding some of their money away.

When mega-corporations do it, then use it to go into space, we have to consider the possibility that the space industry is now also contaminated by the same affliction: tax evasion, avoidance, using the system to reduce or eliminate tax. It is a major problem for all of us and particularly any future plans to inhabit the moon, add space solar power (see my previous posts) or develop a space-faring civilisation capable of utilising resources from the solar system.

We could solve most of climate change by simply going vegan. That would knock out a huge amount of GHG regardless of what the naysayers say! Better investment could take money used for oil and gas production and divert it to space solar power and geothermal energy. Instead corruption in high places, such as investment corporations, mostly in the City of London, with its special connection to the West Indies tax havens e.g. British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands etc. have other plans. They go for short term profit from oil, gas and coal. They make it their mission. We only need some of these to make rocket fuel. Even that could be made artificially from a host of systems that are sustainable and completely carbon neutral. There’s no excuse for them. It is pure insatiable greed and it must be ended.

However, who is going to end it? The world’s leaders are all invested heavily in trust funds. Trust funds are the life blood of the global economy, providing in some cases, 90% of foreign investment. The individuals you think are in power are just puppets on an investment corporations string. They dance to their tune on a daily and hourly basis.

Many of these investment managers end up as head of tax authorities, who then do deals with companies such as British telecomm etc to lower their tax bill. The leaders you feel are adversaries are just part of a puppet show that creates good vs bad and leads to the nation state and terrorist anarchy we all see around us. Since COVID-19 the war in Ukraine, Syria and Yemen have largely disappeared from the news. It is now the USA vs China for a while, until Iran or some other media spectre is developed, like photographs that used to be developed in a dark room.

Valery Danko our star presenter and actress

Our film will be very entertaining, and will try to get the message to the masses in a saucy way, so that they remember it for a long time. A film that fails to titillate and entertain, will always do better than pure dry statistics. That is what we have learned from Hitler, Trump, Johnson and Putin.

Politicians in the UK are well-known for their jobs after office. They seem to always end up with a fortune, being paid millions per week for being an adviser; yet none have any qualifications to advise! What is being paid for here is connections to the global oligarchy.

Money is made from arms and harm. This is why governments and investors invest in human division. Military arms only sell while you have bogeymen to fight. Pharmaceuticals and medicines are massively developed during wars. When you can create opposition, the arms dealers cash in, the wars help to provide new experimental patients to work on. It’s a big win, win for the trust fund managers.

Trust funds are often heavily invested in by illegal drug cartels from South America. This is similar to the Opium trade the British Empire did during its heights in the 19th century. Illegal money from fraud, theft and drugs finds its way into every corner of the world of investments, with huge profits to be had by legitimate and illegitimate businesses who are invested correctly.

Why is there a war in Ukraine raging when it was agreed during the dissolution of the Soviet Union where the border was? Why have hundreds of thousands of Ukrainian people simply vanished? Why is America dying to fight a war with Iran? What stopped that fight? A virus! Covid 19 is a product of our unsustainable meat industry I firmly believe. It was found in Spanish sewers long before it became airborne as a viral infection from Wuhan. How did it get there? ( See Who is cashing in on this deal?

Why are we sleep walking away from our destiny in the stars and allowing the mega-rich to get richer and failing to organise the scientific elites to fight back?

Why are the media allowed to consistently tell lies using measures such as GDP and GNP that have no basis for measuring much more than what wealthy investors wish to know, whilst the rest of people cannot get free health care, even in the UK where the NHS is supposed to be free? What is happening to the worlds space development programmes now we have militarised space and privatised it? Who will make money from those businesses?

There is only one answer. This is not a conspiracy amongst elite investment trust fund management companies or banks. Instead it competition amongst a few ‘hub banks and investment corporations’ that specialise in trust funds and investment in general. You will also notice that major banks and investments corporations often rotate their CEO’s on a merry-go-round of jobs. Some people have the connections, background and education (Oxford and Cambridge) to be insiders. The others are outsiders. (It’s good to be an outsider, for one can shine light into dark places from outside, whereas the true darkness is always masked by artificial light when you are on the inside! Think about it.)

We need to wake up! We need to become politically active.

Space, Survival & Politics

Why we need scientists in politics if we want to become a space faring species.

by John M Clarkson BA(Hons) MSc

Humans are known for one thing on planet Earth if the rest of the creatures could talk. We are the ultimate plague species. Consider one great example. The Polynesian Triangle! As the Polynesians expanded they would take over islands, exhaust their resources and sail on to the next island.

Our film on Easter Island is being made right now (we filmed it on location in 2019) One point it makes is that ‘success’ can lead to disaster, and then a lesser success. Easter lsland was very successful, but eventually that success led to its decline and eventually its enslavement.

The planet we live on currently seems to be a human success. Poverty is generally down across the world, though this is highly debatable. Living standards are generally up. We have more access to technology than ever before. Even young men in impoverished parts of Africa have a mobile (cell) phone. Technology seems to be turning the tide against poverty. Yet there’s a nagging doubt that something is not quite right. Climate change, plastic pollution, micro-plastic pollution, destruction of habitats and air pollution are everywhere. They are not being solved. British ministers promise to stop plastic pollution being sent to developing nations, but nothing is done.

We need a solution to two things right now. One is energy from fossil fuels. Oil is after all the source of much urban air pollution and all plastic pollution. The other is resources. There’s also a need to address two threats to all life on Earth: super-volcanoes and of course comets and asteroids from space that are potential life killers.

We can do very little about super-volcanoes, other than develop underground farming systems, possibly involving mushrooms, but also utilising energy from geothermal to provide underground farming. This would allow humans to shelter for hundreds of years to survive volcanic eruptions. This will cost us money that no politician will provide, because politicians are poor decision makers who think in 5 year election cycles. Democracy and globalism are not good systems for long-term survival, even if my professors in university seemed to believe they were!

Energy we can solve using space solar power and geothermal energy. We don’t need nuclear reactors on Earth. We’d be better off building them in space. That way they’d be far away from us. Even fusion is unnecessary once space solar power and geothermal is sufficiently developed.

Space solar power could be, as suggested in my previous blog a perfect method for solar sail powered ships to glide around the solar system collecting minerals etc that we can use on earth. This kind of world would be a world of plenty, because the solar system has plenty of materials we can harvest. It’s virtually inexhaustible.

Using space solar as the means to deflect earth bound asteroids and comets is a viable solution for most situations. However, it is currently not being prioritised by governments who don’t really understand the issue. It’s not a matter of ‘if’ but ‘when’. The methods we use will not just rely on one kind of defence system. I suggest we start work on this problem immediately. There is no time to waste.

We need better leadership. However, what we observe daily instead is Elon Musk, Jeff Besoz, the Russians, Chinese and Virgin, all involved in space tourism! Today everyone is happy about he splashdown of the Dragon X capsule returning from the ISS. This is the story of humanity. Let’s focus on the wrong problems and deal with them. Let’s focus on BREXIT and Making American Great Again, but not worry about pandemics. Then COVID-19 turns up and the economy crashes. Why? Because our political leaders are not scientists. Instead we have rich men forcing themselves by the fact they have wealth and media status, into power. Be it Biden (whose son is involved in oil in Ukraine) or Trump (who thinks that there were British airports in 1775, and people are ‘dying who have never died before’). In the UK we have a Prime Minister who believed that paint could solve climate change and that building a garden bridge across the river Thames was a viable project, which he spent millions on! These kinds of imbeciles should never be given anything but a toilet brush and an pot to clean; but instead, due to wealth, the ability to inflame the rabble, clever spin, and ignorance amongst even the intelligent (I know someone who thinks Johnson is great, and is himself an Engineer!) they take over.

I think it is time that if we want a Living Universe, scientists need to start to become politicians. It may seem ridiculous, but if it does not happen soon, we will have a problem. Look at how well Germany is run! Yes, perhaps she makes mistakes, but at least hers are forgivable and often very humanistic (helping refugees for example).

If we want to solve our problems we need to do two things fast: quickly develop space technology that defends our planet and finds new resources; and secondly create a more sustainable civilisation on Earth, where people live simpler more harmonious lives, with nature. Where they work for the good of each other and not the greed of themselves. If we do that, we will have a better world.

One stumbling block will be the financial system. That’s a subject for another blog. A blog that will challenge you and what you think about your own contribution to the problems our planet faces.

We need a scientific meritocratic democracy, and we need it quickly.

Kevlar Tether for Phobos

In 2020, a member of the NewMars forum with the ID of “Void” initiated a discussion that has been continuing and evolving ever since. The post that started the sequence contained a simple speculation that it might be possible to deliver gas to the surface of Mars in a “bubble”.

The question led to a mathematical analysis by a member with a PhD in Aerospace Engineering, and the clear answer appears to be a definite NO, if the “bubble” is dropped from the altitude of Phobos with zero horizontal velocity with respect to the the surface of Mars.

The pull of Mars’ gravity, though less than that of Earth (38%) will ** still ** accelerate the bubble (ie, balloon) to a velocity significant enough to insure the object impacts on the surface, instead of floating as might have naively been imagined if the contents is Hydrogen.

However, taking the judgement of the PhD (GW Johnson) in stride, other members began considering the possibility of releasing the bubble at an altitude closer to the surface. That led to renewed discussion of tethers. It turns out that tethers have received some serious attention during the 20 years the NewMars forum has been available as a public service of the Mars Society. In particular, quotations from a web site/ blog by “Hop” show illustrations of various tethers that might be constructed, including one for Phobos.

The inspiration of the vision published by Hop led to work on a concept that might be implemented with Phobos as the anchor. The distance from Phobos to just above the surface of Mars is (about) 3700 miles (5955 km).

Since the Hop blog post suggests Kevlar as a material that might be strong enough for this application, a design is in development to make links of a chain of Kevlar thread. Kevlar thread is offered commercially on Earth in various grades and lengths. A #92 thread is 290 micrometers in diameter, and it can hold 25 pounds or just over 13 kilograms. This information can be (and is being) extended to the design of a chain of Kevlar thread links that would extend 3700 miles toward the surface of Mars.

It appears that a bubble/balloon released from the lowest rung of a Kevlar chain from Phobos would have a modest horizontal velocity with respect to the surface of Mars, and since vertical velocity would be zero at the time of release, a package would have a reasonable chance of survival. In particular, the possibility that a package could be buoyant (ie, filled with Hydrogen) is greater than zero. Testing at Mars, or calculations using CFD (Computation Fluid Dynamics) software may show one way or the other.

In any case, to see images of the CushionGuide intended to bear the compression load between links of the Phobos Tether, readers are welcome to visit the NewMars forum at: